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Antiochos III c 223-187 BC
Antiochos III the Great (Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας) lived between 243 – 187 BC and ruled Syria and western Asia from 222–187 BC being the 6th ruler of the Seleukid Empire. He inherited kingdom was in disarray. Asia Minor had separated from the Seleukids, Baktria fell under Diodotos, Parthia under Arsakes and Media and Persis were revolting under Molon and Alexander. Early on Antiochos attempted campaigns against Ptolemaic Syria as well as Molon and Alexander meeting disaster both times. In Asia Minor the king's cousin, Achaeos succeeded in recovering Pergamon. Antiochos suppressed the rebellion of Molon and Alexander in another campaign in 221 BC and Antiochos returned to Syria in 220 BC. When his cousin Achaeos revolted Antiochos was embroiled in regaining Ptolemaic Syria. Campaigns in 219 BC and 218 BC advanced Antiochos almost to the confines of Ptolemaic Kingdom. In 217 BC Ptolemy IV defeated Antiochos at the Battle of Raphia compelling Antiochos to withdraw north of the Lebanon.In 216 BC Antiochos suppressed the rebellion of his own cousin Achaeos ending with the execution of Achaeos in Sardis in 214 BC. Antiochos obliged Xerxes of Armenia to acknowledge his supremacy in 212 BC and n 209 BC Antiochus invaded ParthiaThe 209 BC saw Antiochos defeated the Greco-Baktrian king Euthydemus I at the Battle of the Arius. Following in the steps of Alexander, Antiochos crossed into the Kabul valley, reaching the realm of Indian king Sophagasenus and returned west by way of Seistan and Kerman (206/5). Once more Antiochos attacked the Ptolemaic province of Coele Syria and Phoenicia, and in 198 BC defeated Scopas at the Battle of Panium, a battle which marks the end of Ptolemaic rule in Judea. Antiochos then moved to Asia Minor which earned him the antagonism of the Roman Republic. Antiochos entered Thrace in 196 BC and in 192 BC advanced into Greece with a 10,000 man army only to be routed in 191 BC by Manius Acilius Glabrio at Thermopylae. Scipio Asiaticus decicively defeated Antiochos at Magnesia ad Sipylum (190 BC). With the Treaty of Apamea in188 BC the Seleukid king forfeited all the country north of the Taurus to Rome. Antiochos mounted a fresh eastern expedition in Luristan where he died while pillaging a temple of Bel at Elymaïs, Persia, in 187 BC. Obverse diademed Antiochos, border of dots. Reverse Apollo sitting on omphalos, holding arrow and bow, monogram and letters Ω (upside down) and P ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ
Mint: Antioch
Provenance: Private acquisition ex Gemini XI Lot # 263

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